The Islamic Golden Age coincided with the Middle Ages in the Muslim world, starting with the rise of Islam and establishment of the first Islamic state in 622.
In the modern era, most of the Muslim world came under influence or colonial domination of European powers.
The nation states that emerged in the post-colonial era have adopted a variety of political and economic models, and they have been affected by secular and as well as religious trends.
Another contribution was the development of stone-paste ceramics, originating from 9th century Iraq.
Arabic: ʔalf-layl-at-wa-l’-layla= One thousand Night and (one) Night) or *Arabian Nights, a name invented by early Western translators, which is a compilation of folk tales from Sanskrit, Persian, and later Arabian fables.
These translations might have later inspired Daniel Defoe to write Robinson Crusoe, regarded as the first novel in English.