Multan district is spread over an area of 3,721 square kilometres (1,437 square miles), comprising four tehsils: Multan City, Multan Saddar, Shujabad and Jalalpur Pirwala.
In 2005 Multan was reorganised as a City District composed of six autonomous towns: According to Hindu legends, it was the capital of the Trigarta Kingdom at the time of the Mahabharata war, ruled by the Katoch Rajput Dynasty. According to Hindu mythology, it was originally called Kashtpur (Kashyapapura) after a Hindu sage named Kashyapa, which is also the Gotra used by the Katoch dynasty.
Following bin Qasim's conquest, the city was securely under Muslim rule, although it was in effect an independent state and most of the subjects were non-Muslim. Mahmud of Ghazni invaded Multan in 1005 CE, conducting a series of campaigns during which the Ismailis of Multan were massacred.
This attempt appeared to be unsuccessful and the Ghaznawids continued to attack other Ismaili strongholds in Sindh to suppress any resurgence of the community in the region.
In 1032CE Mahmud's very own vizier, Hasanak was executed for having accepted a cloak from the Imam-caliph on suspicions that he had become an adherent of the Ismaili faith.
Multan has frequently been a site of conflict due to its location on a major invasion route between South Asia and Central Asia. In the mid-5th century CE, the city was attacked by a group of Hephthalite nomads led by Toramana.
Multan was conquered along with Sindh by Muhammad bin Qasim, from the local ruler Chach of Alor circa 712 AD. Soon after, Multan was attacked by Mahmud of Ghazni, destabilising the Ismaili state.
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