Many of the town's old Harmonist buildings still stand and have been restored.These structures, along with others related to the Owenite community, are included in the New Harmony Historic District.How so numerous a population are kept quietly & tamely in absolute servitude it is hard to conceive—the women I believe do more labor in the field than the men, as large numbers of the latter are engaged in different branches of manufactures." The 1820 manufacturer's census reported that 75 men, 12 women, and 30 children were employed, although they were not paid for their work, in the Society's tanneries, saw and grain mills, and woolen and cotton mills.
The town will be located about 1/4 mile from the river above on the channel on a plane as level as the floor of a room, perhaps a good quarter mile from the hill which lies suitable for a vineyard." Although Rapp expressed concern that the town's location lacked a waterworks, the area provided an opportunity for expansion and access to markets through the nearby rivers, causing him to remark, "In short, the place has all the advantages which one could wish, if a steam engine meanwhile supplies what is lacking." The first Harmonists left Pennsylvania in June 1814 and traveled by flatboat to their new land in the Indiana Territory.
In May 1815 the last of the Harmonists who had remained behind until the sale of their town in Pennsylvania was completed departed for their new town along the Wabash River.
New Harmony became known as a center for advances in education and scientific research.
New Harmony's residents established the first free library, a civic drama club, and a public school system open to men and women.
Although the Harmonist community continued to thrive during the 1820s, correspondence from March 6, 1824, between Rapp and his adopted son, Frederick, indicates that the Harmonists planned to sell their Indiana property and were already looking for a new location.