Boulders used for this activity generally have smooth dish-shaped concave areas on them and sometimes grooves in which the adz bits were sharpened.These boulders are found in archaeological sites (such as Maloata and Tulauta), in streams, and elsewhere on the island landscape.Tutuila was at times under the jurisdiction of the eastern districts of 'Upolu, and Tutuilans may have been required by chiefs on 'Upolu to fight in their wars.
Large quantities of basalt debris have been found in various village sites (e.g., Maloata [Ayers & Eisler 1987] and Tulauta [Frost 1978; Clark 1980; Brophy 1986]).
Polishing the adzes was a final step in their production; large basalt boulders were used for this finishing.
1993) and 'Aoa on Tutuila (Clark & Michlovic 1996).
While early sites on some other islands in Polynesia are now beneath water (e.g., the Mulifanua Lapita Pottery site on 'Upolu [Green & Davidson 1967]), the evidence to date indicates that early sites in American Samoa will be found on the shores of prehistoric embankments that have subsequently filled in with sand.
When not at war in later prehistory Samoans lived in villages; in American Samoa these were mostly in coastal areas. In some cases the remains are still visible on the surface while in other places the evidence of prehistoric use is all below the ground surface.